Tuesday, March 21

Domoda: May improve sexual function, and sperm quality, Diabetics Superfood

Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr +

By Prof. Raphael Nyarkotey Obu

Domoda is a type of groundnut stew found in The Gambia.  Domoda is prepared using ground peanuts or peanut butter, meat, onion, tomato, garlic, seasonal vegetables, and spices. It has been described as one of the national dishes of The Gambia. Domoda is typically served over rice and is also sometimes served over findi, a grain that is similar to couscous in consistency. Domoda is similar to groundnut soup in Ghana and usually eaten with fufu.  In this article, I examine the science behind Domoda consumption based on the main ingredient peanut.

Domoda, Supporting literature

Nutrition facts

Here are the nutrition facts for 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of raw peanuts:

Calories: 567
Water: 7%
Protein: 25.8 grams
Carbs: 16.1 grams
Sugar: 4.7 grams
Fiber: 8.5 grams
Fat: 49.2 grams
Saturated: 6.28 grams
Monounsaturated: 24.43 grams
Polyunsaturated: 15.56 grams
Omega-3: 0 grams
Omega-6: 15.56 grams
Trans: 0 grams

Fat in Domoda

Peanuts are high in fat.

Four studies( Andersen et al. 1998;  Rodrigues et al. 2011; Jonnala et al. 2006; B. McKevith, 2005) found that peanut has a fat content of 44–56%. However, the fat content consists mostly of mono- and polyunsaturated fat, the majority is made up of oleic and linoleic acids.

Protein in Peanuts

They are also a good source of protein and contain about 22–30% of their total calories, which put them in a category of a good source of plant-based protein (Andersen et al. 1998;  Jonnala et al. 2006; B. McKevith, 2005). Arachin and conarachin are the major proteins in peanuts and could be allergic to some people, causing life-threatening reactions(Latif et al. 2013).


Peanuts are low in carbs.

B. McKevith(2005) carb ranges from 13–16% of the total weight. The University of Sydney reports due that due to the low carbs and high protein, fat, and fiber, peanuts have a very low glycemic index (GI), which shows how quickly carbs enter your bloodstream after a  meal.  One study conducted in Ghana by Yeboah et al. (2019) found that the GI index of groundnut soup with beef is 4 and with anchovies is 0.9. This is very very low on the GI scale. Thus Domoda is good for diabetics.

Vitamins and minerals

The US Department of Agriculture reports that Peanuts contain so many good sources of vitamins and minerals, such as:

Biotin- Two studies(Staggs et al. 2004; Pacheco-Alvarez et al. 2002) agreed that peanuts are loaded with biotin, significant for pregnancy.
Copper- Nath R(1997) is also found in peanuts which is good for heart health.

Peanuts also contain so many nutrients vital for our health.  For instance, Niacin or vitamin B3, for heart disease reduction (Lavigne and Karas, 2013);  Folate or vitamin B9 or folic acid, during pregnancy (Fekete et al. 2012); magnesium for heart (Guasch-Ferré et al. 2014) and many more.

Other plant compounds

Peanuts are also loaded with antioxidants. Most of these antioxidants are found in peanut skin, (Talcott et al. 2005; Lou et al. 2004).

This notwithstanding, peanut kernels also contain the following antioxidants:

p-Coumaric acid- is one of the major polyphenols in peanuts (Sebei et al. 2013; Talcott et al. 2005).
Resveratrol-  reduces the risk of cancer and heart disease(Sales et al. 2014) and many others such as isoflavones, Phytosterols, and Phytic acid.

Treat Erectile dysfunction

It may sound funny but studies support that eating peanuts may help you treat your erectile dysfunction.  This is the reason. Peanuts are rich in arginine, which is an essential amino acid(Aninbon et al. 2017).  Though more studies are needed. In a recent meta-analysis, Rhim et al.(2019) found that arginine has been studied extensively as a possible treatment for erectile dysfunction . one clinical trial(Stanislavov and Nikolova, 2003) oral administration of this amino acid in combination with a herbal supplement (called pycnogenol) can treat erectile dysfunction.

More studies supported peanuts on male sexual functions. For instance,  (Arya et al. 2016; Ghimire et al. 2017) found that nitric oxide converted is a compound that helps dilate the blood vessels to improve blood flow and circulation.

Two more studies (Davies KP, 2016; Rhim et al. 2019) found that arginine supplements may help treat mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.

Test-tube and animal studies(Chen et al. 2017; Jia et al. 2020; Yang et al. 2019; Abbaspour et al. 2019) have found that arginine could improve semen quality, enhance libido, and increase testosterone levels.  A previous study(Arya et al. 2016) reported that resveratrol in peanuts, an antioxidant supports sexual health in men.

Finally, other animal and human studies(Bahmanzadeh et al. 2019; Illiano et al. 2020; Sener et al. 2018; Bai and An R, 2015)  found that resveratrol could improve sperm quality and erectile function.  

Hence, eating Domoda or groundnut could be helping you deal with your erectile and sexual functions. So men it appears Domoda or peanut soup is our friend to explore to keep our sex life in good health.

May Boost Energy

One study by Bonku and Yu, (2020) notes that Peanuts are a rich source of protein and fiber that assists in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy.  An old study by (Jett C. 1953) established that the protein in peanuts is around 25% of the total calories. These combinations; of fiber and protein slow down the digestive process to facilitate a steady release of energy into the body. Eva De Angelis, Dietitian Nutritionist, says, “Likewise, their nutrient profile makes them superb pre-workout snacks, especially peanut butter with no added sugar, salt, or oils, which is easier to eat.”

Another study looks at the effect of peanuts on muscle(Carbone and Pasiakos, 2019) and found that it increases strength and supports muscle growth, especially when paired with resistance training.

Another randomized controlled trial(Lamb et al. 2020) report that taking a peanut powder supplement increased muscle mass and strength among older adults when combined with resistance training.

Weight loss

One major area of research is on weight loss though you would assume that being high in fat and calories, could contribute to weight gain. But this is not the case. It rather increases weight loss(Ogden et al. 2010).  Four observational studies(Moreno et al. 2013; Mattes et al. 2008; Bes-Rastrollo et al. 2009; Hu and Stampfer, 1999) found that peanut consumption may help maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of obesity. It is however prudent to take note that, the studies are only observational, they cannot prove causation.

This notwithstanding, one small clinical trial in 16 women conducted in 6 months found that when other sources of fat in a low-fat diet were replaced with peanuts, they lost 6.6 pounds (3 kg) despite being told to maintain their initial weight(O’Byrne et al. 1997).

Another study found that when 3 ounces (89 grams) of peanuts were added to the daily diet of healthy adults for 8 weeks, they did not gain as much weight as expected(Alper and Mattes, 2002). Finally, Arya et al. (2016) study found that the consumption of peanuts and peanut butter can increase feelings of fullness. These could satisfy individuals better than carbohydrate-filled snacks in equal quantities.

The writer Prof. Raphael Nyarkotey Obu

Heart Health

Some observational studies (Hu and Stampfer, 1999; Hu et al. 1998; Li et al. 2009) found that eating peanuts, as well as other types of nuts, may protect against heart disease.

These protective effects could be due to many reasons, (Kris-Etherton et al. 2008; Ros E. 2008; Alper and Mattes, 2003).

A recent study, by Hong et al.( 2018) conducted on rats also stated that polyphenol-rich peanut skin extract may reduce the inflammation that causes heart disease. A more recent study that seems to place peanuts on the scale with red wine attests that the resveratrol in peanuts has antioxidant properties that may help combat heart disease. That is why peanuts seem to have similar cardioprotective effects as other foods containing resveratrol  (Dyck et al. 2019). Finally, a study on rats conducted by Marmara University (Turkey) found that peanuts increase the levels of good cholesterol(Emekli-Alturfan and Kasikci, 2007). Though more studies are needed.

Gallstone prevention

Two observational studies(Tsai et al. 2004; Tsai et al. 2004) found that frequent peanut consumption may cut the risk of gallstones in both men and women.

Blood sugar control

Adding peanuts or peanut butter to a meal does not spike blood sugar levels. Having them along with a meal high in GL (like a bagel or a glass of juice) may stabilize your blood sugar levels. Peanuts have a GI (glycemic index) score of 14. While the GI of peanuts is 14 (on a 100-point scale), their GL (glycemic load, which tells what a particular food will do to your sugar levels) is just 1(Arya et al. 2016). 

That is why the American Diabetes Association names peanuts as a diabetes superfood. What makes it a superfood is that in a soup form even when combined with beef has a GI of 7,  and anchovies have a GI of 0.7(Yeboah et al. 2019). This is why we have to eat our local foods as Africans.

The fiber in peanuts also helps lower blood sugar levels. They also contain magnesium and other healthy oils that play a role in this aspect(Arya et al. 2016).

Another randomized controlled trial conducted by Reis et al. (2013) at the Federal University Of Vicoça (Brazil) on obese women found that consuming peanuts or peanut butter right in the morning may control blood sugar levels throughout the day.

A previous study by (Jiang et al. 2002) conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health found that a higher intake of peanuts and peanut butter can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Finally, another randomized controlled trial by Wien et al.(2014)

Found that daily consumption of a diet enriched with peanuts over 24 weeks could improve health parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. The rich nutritional profile of peanuts responsible for this, which includes monounsaturated fat, fiber, arginine, niacin, folate, and vitamin E.  Is this not interesting for diabetics to eat Domoda or groundnut soup and its related product?

May Reduce Cancer Risk

Lee et al. (2018) study found that high consumption of peanuts (including other nuts) has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The isoflavonesi, resveratrol, and phenolic acid found in peanuts have anti-cancer properties which may help reduce the risk of cancer.

Another study conducted in The Netherlands by Brandt et al.(2018) found that peanut consumption is linked with a reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Peanuts were also found to prevent gastric and esophageal cancers among older American adults. Hashemian et al. (2017) went further and compared those who take peanut butter and those who did not and found that those who did not consume any nuts or peanut butter were at the highest risk of developing these cancers.

Though some concerns have been raised concerning peanuts and cancer by the National Cancer Institute(2022) because Peanuts might be contaminated with aflatoxins, a family of toxins produced by certain fungi as they may increase the risk of liver cancer. However, a Sales et al.(2014) study conducted by the University of Georgia (USA) found that the resveratrol found in peanuts possesses potent antioxidant properties that help in reducing the risk of cancer.

Other emerging interests

First, Morris et al.(2004) study found that diets that are rich in niacin – like peanuts – may protect against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. Peanuts are an excellent source of niacin and vitamin E, both of which have been shown to protect against Alzheimer’sdisease.  Another study by Arya et al.(2016) conducted on 4000 people aged 65 years and older found that niacin from food slows down the rate of cognitive decline.

Second, Douglas et al.(2006) report that anecdotal evidence suggests that peanuts may help treat Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) as they contain monounsaturated fats. Some research states that a diet high in these fats could help improve the metabolic profile of women with PCOS.

Third, as per anecdotal evidence(stylecraze.com), peanut consumption may protect your skin from sunburn and damage. The vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc found in peanuts may fight bacteria and make your skin glow. Beta-carotenei  , an antioxidant available in peanuts, may help also improve skin health.

Finally, Goluch-Koniuszy(2016) found that peanuts contain all the amino acids and lots of protein, so they may be a good supplement to a diet for hair growth

Peanuts, concerns


Wild and Gong(2009) study found aflatoxins to be a major issue that can trigger liver cancer in peanuts.  The aflatoxin concern is dependent on peanuts are stored. The risk increases with warm and humid conditions, especially in the tropics. The study however found that the aflatoxin contamination can be effectively prevented by properly drying peanuts after harvesting and keeping temperature and humidity low during storage.

Also, another concern is the phytic acid content in peanuts. Phytic acid (phytate) is found in all edible seeds, nuts, grains, and legumes. In peanuts, it ranges from 0.2–4.5% (Schlemmer et al. 2009). Phytic acid reduces the availability of iron and zinc in peanuts, lowering their nutritional value a little(Lopez et al. 2002).  This notwithstanding, Atli Arnarson(2019) notes that this is usually not a concern in well-balanced diets and among those who eat meat regularly. He notes: “Nonetheless, it may be a problem in developing countries where the main food sources are grains or legumes.” Finally, some also experienced allergies to eating peanuts (Burks AW, 2008).

Take Home

In conclusion, it appears men in particular stand to benefit more from eating peanuts related to diet in any form such as Domoda, groundnut soup, peanut paste, and many more. Some of the benefits are: promoting muscle growth, supporting heart health, improving sperm quality, and enhancing sexual function. I know the men will start advising their wives to prepare them Domoda or groundnut soup. Don’t you think Africa is blessed?



Prof. Nyarkotey has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations to justify his write-ups.  My articles are for educational purposes and do not serve as Medical advice for Treatment. I aim to educate the public about evidence-based scientific Naturopathic Therapies.

The writer is a Professor of Naturopathic Healthcare, a Medical Journalist, and a science writer. President, Nyarkotey University College of Holistic Medicine & Technology (NUCHMT)/African Naturopathic Foundation, Ashaiman, Ghana. Currently BL Candidate at the Gambia Law School, Banjul. E. mail: professor40naturopathy@gmail.com. + 2207452652(for more information)


Burks AW. Peanut allergy. Lancet. 2008 May 3;371(9623):1538-46. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60659-5. PMID: 18456104.
Schlemmer U, Frølich W, Prieto RM, Grases F. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Sep;53 Suppl 2:S330-75. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900099. PMID: 19774556.
Wild CP, Gong YY. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Jan;31(1):71-82. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgp264. Epub 2009 Oct 29. PMID: 19875698; PMCID: PMC2802673.
Sener TE, Tavukcu HH, Atasoy BM, Cevik O, Kaya OT, Cetinel S, Dagli Degerli A, Tinay I, Simsek F, Akbal C, Butticè S, Sener G. Resveratrol treatment may preserve the erectile function after radiotherapy by restoring antioxidant defence mechanisms, SIRT1 and NOS protein expressions. Int J Impot Res. 2018 Aug;30(4):179-188. doi: 10.1038/s41443-018-0042-6. Epub 2018 Jul 5. PMID: 29973698.
Bai Y, An R. Resveratrol and sildenafil synergistically improve diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2015 Aug 15;135:43-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.04.020. Epub 2015 May 23. PMID: 26006044.
Bahmanzadeh M, Goodarzi MT, Rezaei Farimani A, Fathi N, Alizadeh Z. Resveratrol supplementation improves DNA integrity and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Andrologia. 2019 Sep;51(8):e13313. doi: 10.1111/and.13313. Epub 2019 Jun 9. PMID: 31179568.
Illiano E, Trama F, Zucchi A, Iannitti RG, Fioretti B, Costantini E. Resveratrol-Based Multivitamin Supplement Increases Sperm Concentration and Motility in Idiopathic Male Infertility: A Pilot Clinical Study. J Clin Med. 2020 Dec 11;9(12):4017. doi: 10.3390/jcm9124017. PMID: 33322606; PMCID: PMC7763587.
Abbaspour B, Sharifi SD, Ghazanfari S, Honarbakhsh S, Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh A. The effect of l-arginine and flaxseed on plasma testosterone concentration, semen quality and some testicular histology parameters in old broiler breeder roosters. Theriogenology. 2019 Apr 1;128:101-109. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.01.034. Epub 2019 Feb 1. PMID: 30743098.
Chen JQ, Li YS, Li ZJ, Lu HX, Zhu PQ, Li CM. Dietary l-arginine supplementation improves semen quality and libido of boars under high ambient temperature. Animal. 2018 Aug;12(8):1611-1620. doi: 10.1017/S1751731117003147. Epub 2017 Dec 4. PMID: 29198215.
Yang JY, Zhang YF, Nie N, Feng WP, Bao JF, Meng XP, Qiao XL. Protective effects of l-arginine against testosterone synthesis decreased by T-2 toxin in mouse Leydig cells. Theriogenology. 2019 Aug;134:98-103. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.05.023. Epub 2019 May 28. PMID: 31158736.
Jia X, Li Z, Ren X, Dai P, Li Y, Li C. L-Arginine alleviates the testosterone reduction in heat-treated mice by upregulating LH secretion, the testicular antioxidant system and expression of steroidogenesis-related genes. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2020 Jun;32(10):885-892. doi: 10.1071/RD19303. PMID: 32586418.
Ghimire K, Altmann HM, Straub AC, Isenberg JS. Nitric oxide: what’s new to NO? Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017 Mar 1;312(3):C254-C262. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00315.2016. Epub 2016 Dec 14. PMID: 27974299; PMCID: PMC5401944.
Rhim HC, Kim MS, Park YJ, Choi WS, Park HK, Kim HG, Kim A, Paick SH. The Potential Role of Arginine Supplements on Erectile Dysfunction: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med. 2019 Feb;16(2):223-234. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.12.002. Erratum in: J Sex Med. 2020 Mar;17(3):560. PMID: 30770070.
Davies KP. Development and therapeutic applications of nitric oxide releasing materials to treat erectile dysfunction. Future Sci OA. 2015 Aug;1(1):FSO53. doi: 10.4155/fso.15.53. PMID: 27019746; PMCID: PMC4806684.
Carbone JW, Pasiakos SM. Dietary Protein and Muscle Mass: Translating Science to Application and Health Benefit. Nutrients. 2019 May 22;11(5):1136. doi: 10.3390/nu11051136. PMID: 31121843; PMCID: PMC6566799.
Cao AT, Goodlett MD, Huggins KW, Fruge AD, Young KC, Roberts MD. The effects of resistance training with or without peanut protein supplementation on skeletal muscle and strength adaptations in older individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Dec 14;17(1):66. doi: 10.1186/s12970-020-00397-y. PMID: 33317565; PMCID: PMC7734909.
Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. J Food Compost Anal. 2004 Dec;17(6):767-776. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2003.09.015. PMID: 16648879; PMCID: PMC1450323.
Lavigne PM, Karas RH. The current state of niacin in cardiovascular disease prevention: a systematic review and meta-regression. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jan 29;61(4):440-446. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.10.030. Epub 2012 Dec 19. PMID: 23265337.
Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solórzano-Vargas RS, Del Río AL. Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease. Arch Med Res. 2002 Sep-Oct;33(5):439-47. doi: 10.1016/s0188-4409(02)00399-5. PMID: 12459313.
Nath R. Copper deficiency and heart disease: molecular basis, recent advances and current concepts. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997 Nov;29(11):1245-54. doi: 10.1016/s1357-2725(97)00060-5. PMID: 9451822.
Fekete K, Berti C, Trovato M, Lohner S, Dullemeijer C, Souverein OW, Cetin I, Decsi T. Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. Nutr J. 2012 Sep 19;11:75. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-75. PMID: 22992251; PMCID: PMC3499376
Guasch-Ferré M, Bulló M, Estruch R, Corella D, Martínez-González MA, Ros E, Covas M, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Muñoz MÁ, Serra-Majem L, Babio N, Pintó X, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Salas-Salvadó J; PREDIMED Study Group. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. J Nutr. 2014 Jan;144(1):55-60. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.183012. Epub 2013 Nov 20. PMID: 24259558.
Stephen T. Talcott a, Sharyn Passeretti a, Christopher E. Duncan a, Daniel W. Gorbet(2005) Polyphenolic content and sensory properties of normal and high oleic acid peanuts.  Food Chemistry. Volume 90, Issue 3, , Pages 379-388
Lou H, Yuan H, Ma B, Ren D, Ji M, Oka S. Polyphenols from peanut skins and their free radical-scavenging effects. Phytochemistry. 2004 Aug;65(16):2391-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.06.026. PMID: 15381013.
Sebei K, Gnouma A, Herchi W, Sakouhi F, Boukhchina S. Lipids, proteins, phenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of seeds of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea l) cultivated in Tunisia. Biol Res. 2013;46(3):257-63. doi: 10.4067/S0716-97602013000300006. PMID: 24346073.
Sales JM, Resurreccion AV. Resveratrol in peanuts. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(6):734-70. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.606928. PMID: 24345046.
Aninbon C, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N, Nuchadomrong S, Holbrook CC, Kvien C, Puppala N, Patanothai A. Variability of arginine content and yield components in Valencia peanut germplasm. Breed Sci. 2017 Jun;67(3):207-212. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.16146. Epub 2017 May 23. PMID: 28744173; PMCID: PMC5515306.
Rhim HC, Kim MS, Park YJ, Choi WS, Park HK, Kim HG, Kim A, Paick SH. The Potential Role of Arginine Supplements on Erectile Dysfunction: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med. 2019 Feb;16(2):223-234. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.12.002. Erratum in: J Sex Med. 2020 Mar;17(3):560. PMID: 30770070
Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):207-13. doi: 10.1080/00926230390155104. PMID: 12851125.
Rabiatu Bonku, Jianmei Yu(2020)Health aspects of peanuts as an outcome of its chemical composition. Food Science and Human Wellness. Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 21-30.
Jett C. Arthur Jr(1953)Peanut Protein Isolation, Composition, and Properties. Advances in Protein Chemistry. Volume 8, Pages 393-414
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA. 2010 Jan 20;303(3):242-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.2012. Epub 2010 Jan 13. PMID: 20071470.
Moreno JP, Johnston CA, El-Mubasher AA, Papaioannou MA, Tyler C, Gee M, Foreyt JP. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status. Nutr Res. 2013 Jul;33(7):552-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.05.005. Epub 2013 Jun 15. PMID: 23827129.
Mattes RD, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD. Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1741S-1745S. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.9.1741S. PMID: 18716179.
Bes-Rastrollo M, Wedick NM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson L, Hu FB. Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1913-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27276. Epub 2009 Apr 29. PMID: 19403639; PMCID: PMC2683001.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 1999 Nov;1(3):204-9. doi: 10.1007/s11883-999-0033-7. PMID: 11122711.
O’Byrne DJ, Knauft DA, Shireman RB. Low fat-monounsaturated rich diets containing high-oleic peanuts improve serum lipoprotein profiles. Lipids. 1997 Jul;32(7):687-95. doi: 10.1007/s11745-997-0088-y. PMID: 9252956.
Alper CM, Mattes RD. Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Aug;26(8):1129-37. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802050. PMID: 12119580.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5. doi: 10.1136/bmj.317.7169.1341. PMID: 9812929; PMCID: PMC28714.
Li TY, Brennan AM, Wedick NM, Mantzoros C, Rifai N, Hu FB. Regular consumption of nuts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 2009 Jul;139(7):1333-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.103622. Epub 2009 May 6. PMID: 19420347; PMCID: PMC2696988.
Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, Sabaté J. The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1746S-1751S. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.9.1746S. PMID: 18716180.
Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010 Jul;2(7):652-682. doi: 10.3390/nu2070652. Epub 2010 Jun 24. PMID: 22254047; PMCID: PMC3257681.
Alper CM, Mattes RD. Peanut consumption improves indices of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Apr;22(2):133-41. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2003.10719286. PMID: 12672709.
Hong MY, Groven S, Marx A, Rasmussen C, Beidler J. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Hypolipidemic Effects of Mixed Nuts in Atherogenic Diet-Fed Rats. Molecules. 2018 Nov 29;23(12):3126. doi: 10.3390/molecules23123126. PMID: 30501043; PMCID: PMC6321097.
Dyck GJB, Raj P, Zieroth S, Dyck JRB, Ezekowitz JA. The Effects of Resveratrol in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure: A Narrative Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 19;20(4):904. doi: 10.3390/ijms20040904. PMID: 30791450; PMCID: PMC6413130.
Emekli-Alturfan E, Kasikci E, Yarat A. Peanuts improve blood glutathione, HDL-cholesterol level and change tissue factor activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Eur J Nutr. 2007 Dec;46(8):476-82. doi: 10.1007/s00394-007-0688-1. Epub 2007 Nov 7. PMID: 17989913.
Arya SS, Salve AR, Chauhan S. Peanuts as functional food: a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan;53(1):31-41. doi: 10.1007/s13197-015-2007-9. Epub 2015 Sep 19. PMID: 26787930; PMCID: PMC4711439.
Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Hu FB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. A prospective cohort study of nut consumption and the risk of gallstone disease in men. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):961-8. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwh302. PMID: 15522852.
Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Hu FB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Frequent nut consumption and decreased risk of cholecystectomy in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):76-81. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/80.1.76. PMID: 15213031.
Peter C. Andersen a 1, Kristen Hill a, Daniel W. Gorbet b, Brent V. Brodbeck (1998) Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profiles of Selected Peanut Cultivars and Breeding Lines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Volume 11, Issue 2, , Pages 100-111
A.C. Rodrigues, G.L. Ströher, A.R. Freitas, J.V. Visentainer, C.C. Oliveira, N.E. de Souza(2011). The effect of genotype and roasting on the fatty acid composition of peanuts. Food Research International. Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 187-192
Ramakanth S. Jonnala, Nurhan T. Dunford, Kelly Chenault(2006)Nutritional Composition of Genetically Modified Peanut Varieties. Journal of Food Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07198.
B. McKevith(2005) Nutritional aspects of oilseeds. Nutrition Bullet. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2005.00472.x
Latif S, Pfannstiel J, Makkar HP, Becker K. Amino acid composition, antinutrients and allergens in the peanut protein fraction obtained by an aqueous enzymatic process. Food Chem. 2013 Jan 1;136(1):213-7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.120. Epub 2012 Aug 8. PMID: 23017415.
Eunice Serwaa Yeboah, Jacob K. Agbenorhevi, Gilbert Owiah Sampson(2019) Glycemic Index of Five Ghanaian Corn and Cassava Staples. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(9), 624-631 doi:10.12691/jfnr-7-9-1
Reis CE, Ribeiro DN, Costa NM, Bressan J, Alfenas RC, Mattes RD. Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jun;109(11):2015-23. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512004217. Epub 2012 Nov 5. PMID: 23122211.
Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2554-60. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.20.2554. PMID: 12444862.
Wien M, Oda K, Sabaté J. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes. Nutr J. 2014 Jan 22;13:10. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-10. PMID: 24450471; PMCID: PMC3902416.
Lee J, Shin A, Oh JH, Kim J. The relationship between nut intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study. Nutr J. 2018 Mar 7;17(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s12937-018-0345-y. PMID: 29514652; PMCID: PMC5840774.
van den Brandt PA, Nieuwenhuis L. Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: The Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Jan;29(1):63-75. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0979-7. Epub 2017 Nov 22. PMID: 29168062; PMCID: PMC5752734.
Hashemian M, Murphy G, Etemadi A, Dawsey SM, Liao LM, Abnet CC. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep;106(3):858-864. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.159467. Epub 2017 Aug 2. PMID: 28768652; PMCID: PMC5573026.
Aflatoxins(2022). https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/aflatoxins.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Scherr PA, Tangney CC, Hebert LE, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N. Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;75(8):1093-9. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2003.025858. PMID: 15258207; PMCID: PMC1739176.
Douglas CC, Gower BA, Darnell BE, Ovalle F, Oster RA, Azziz R. Role of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2006 Mar;85(3):679-88. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.08.045. PMID: 16500338; PMCID: PMC3752890.
Goluch-Koniuszy ZS. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause. Prz Menopauzalny. 2016 Mar;15(1):56-61. doi: 10.5114/pm.2016.58776. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27095961; PMCID: PMC4828511.